< Home

  > Publishing Contact
     
info<at>chaosfilter.com
Wurruk - Reflections in Black and White - includes ganai, kurnai, aboriginal language

Preview and/or purchase Wurruk direct from printer (c/o Lulu, Inc.)

 

WURRUK: Reflections in Black and White

by Vaughan Nikitin

NEW! - Preview on Google Books

Preview and/or purchase Wurruk direct from printer
(c/o Lulu, Inc.)

Hint: if purchasing from outside the USA, select 'Economy' rather than the default 'Standard' shipping ~ 1/2 price

Also available from Amazon, Borders, Barnes & Noble

ISBN:  978 - 1 - 84728 - 956 -8 (use this number to order from your local bookstore - from 12/2006)

An Earth-Story (Part) Written in an Aboriginal Language

Wurruk - Kurnai Language Glossary in Adobe PDF Format (right mouse click, save link as)

"In the spring of 1988, two teenage boys disappeared for seven nights in a wild and mystical region of Gippsland in south east Australia. Both were from proud families with a long history in the area. One of the clans arrived in 1878, soon after the first European settlers; the other before the last ice age. One of the boys wrote this story; the other is dead. One never had a chance to say he was sorry; the other never had a chance..."

Enter the reflective world of Wurruk (earth/story), a bullum (dual) memoir of the lives of bullum (two) tallumart (young men) as told by Vaughan Nikitin - in relation to his aboriginal yunki (mate) and brogan (brother), Tommy Hinkins: together, this is their self-portrait. Share their search for identity in this journey through space, time and the unforgotten language of their ancestors (the legends of the kurnai - ganai - gannai - gunnai - and the mountain cattlemen).

Wurruk is one man’s attempt to reconcile with (his) place by way of a part real, part imagined memoir. The author juxtaposes his own story with that of his doppelgänger, Tommy Hinkins, a representation of the Kurnai people, the first people of Gippsland, Australia, leading up to the death of one by the Den of Nargun, near the Mitchell River in eastern Victoria.

Advertisement:

Less Hate More Love Merchandise (T shirts, Posters, Mugs, etc.)

'Less hate' in black and white. 'More Love' in the indigenous colours of Australia. Promote peace, harmony and reconciliation everywhere you go. One land, one people... Say no to racism and give peace a chance!

 

Less Hate More Love, Reconciliation, Anti Racism
View print on demand catalogue

More information on Wurruk, by Vaughan Nikitin

Written in 2002, Wurruk is one man’s attempt to reconcile with (his) place by way of a part real, part imagined memoir.  The author juxtaposes his own story with that of his doppelgänger, Tommy Hinkins, a representation of the Kurnai people, the first people of Gippsland, Australia, leading up to the death of one by the Den of Nargun, near the Mitchell River in eastern Victoria.

This book is divided into three parts: Parts I and III are predominantly written in Australian English and represent the comparative histories of two individuals in contemporary Australia as understood by the author, Part II represents the dreaming shared by the two characters when, together and truly alone for the first time, they disappear in time, in the bush, only to rediscover their ancestories in company.

Part II begins in Australian English but incorporates the remnants of the Kurnai language as it progresses.  In the first draft of Part II, Kurnai words were used from the place they were introduced; in the end the author limited himself to almost exclusively telling the story within the confines of what remains of the Kurnai vocabulary.  The aim of this technique was for the author to interpret the land through the language native to it, and to thus simultaneously place the (dying) words back into a meaningful context, within a story, the only place, the only way, meanings can survive through time.  While most of the Kurnai words in the original have been translated back into English, certain key concepts have been retained for this edition.

Immersion in this native language of Wurruk should at first alienate and, gunno ironically, displace the reader – that is the intention; it must be remembered, however, that this particular struggle is minor, albeit significant, in relation to our ongoing efforts toward reconciliation with the Australian landscape and the first people to give it meaning.  If we cannot incorporate the words given to us by the original inhabitants of this place, words themselves born of this land, then what hope do ‘we’ have in the end?

warrun ~ sun; yaan ~ water; warrunyan ~ love

… (: think about it :) …

Preview and/or purchase Wurruk direct from printer (c/o Lulu, Inc.)



You are welcome to print this list as an accompaniment to the book, as a quick reference while reading rather than flicking backward and forward from the manuscript and the glossary included at the end of the publication.

Download Glossary in Adobe PDF format by clicking here

Kurnai Language Glossary (Words Retained)

baan (kurnai)

evil magic, sorcery

bagwan (kurnai)

life

bandan (kurnai)

sleep

bang (kurnai)

camp

Baul-Baul (kurnai)

Boole Boole Peninsula, place name

beakwan (kurnai)

alright, all right

beeber-beeber (kurnai)

a constant gale

Berrawun (kurnai)

Tambo River, place name

Bidwelli (bidwelli)

Bidwelli tribe, Eastern border of Victoria and New South Wales

billabong (unknown koorie)

a section of a river where it may have once flowed that fills with water when the river overflows

bimba (kurnai)

shoot out; spark (fire)

Binejarra-baul-baul (kurnai)

sub-tribe, family within the Tatungolung

birraark (kurnai)

men who had communion with the spirit world

blinte (kurnai)

bright light

boldain (kurnai)

young adults are given new names according to certain personal characteristics

boolk (kurnai)

magic or witchcraft; small black stones or pebbles used as charms

booroo (kurnai)

gun

boorun (kurnai)

pelican

bow (kurnai)

okay, OK

boyang (kurnai)

egg

Brabrolung (kurnai)

Brabrolung tribe, Kurnai, Lake King, Great Dviding Range from Mitchell River to the Tambo River

braeel (kurnai)

star

Braiakolung (kurnai)

Braiakolung tribe, Kurnai, Strezlecki Ranges, Great Dividing Range to Lake Victoria

brajerak (kurnai)

enemy; men whom we fear

Bratauolung (kurnai)

Bratauolung tribe, Kurnai, Wilson's Promontory, Strezlecki Ranges and Seaspray

bret (kurnai)

hand, hands

brewin (kurnai)

evil spirit, disease

brewit (kurnai)

adult male, following the initiation

bridda-bridda (kurnai)

aprons worn around the waist by men, made from the skin of the kangaroo rat

brogan (kurnai)

brother/adopted brother

brundhu (kurnai)

tomorrow

budgee budgee mul (kurnai)

come here; I want you

bukkan (kurnai)

night; dark

bulaman (kurnai)

two

bulaman-bata-bulum (kurnai)

four [two and two]

bulaman-bata-gutuk (kurnai)

three [two and one]

bulamirnda (kurnai)

wife, husband, spouse

bullerwang (kurnai)

adult male companion during the initiation ceremony

bullum (kurnai)

both, duality

bullum-bullum (kurnai)

plenty

Bung-Yarnda (kurnai)

Lake Tyers, place name

Bunjil (kurnai)

knowledge, wisdom, understanding; a prefix given to the male Kurnai elders

Bunjil-baul (kurnai)

Raymond Island, place name

Bunurong (bunurong)

Bunurong Tribe, Westernport Bay

butha (kurnai)

the

coungulla (kurnai)

wild black

cowarr (kurnai)

wind

cudgeree (kurnai)

club, heavy club

cuttarie (kurnai)

cloak [possum skin]

daan (kurnai)

snow, ice

damut (kurnai)

masturbation

dardi (kurnai)

strong, powerful

dawalgan (kurnai)

wound

dhadyan (kurnai)

clever man

dhadyang (kurnai)

happy

dhandalak (kurnai)

eat

dhandayan (kurnai)

drink

dhun (kurnai)

penis

dhunguggan (kurnai)

sex

diak (kurnai)

ask

dindin (kurnai)

very bad

dindin-munadha

sorry

djeetgun (kurnai)

blue wren, superb warbler, Malurus Cyaneus [also the totem of the women in the Kurnai tribes]

djira (kurnai)

kangaroo

doogooroo (kurnai)

waterfall

durdigan (kurnai)

dead, die

durt (kurnai)

testicles, scrotum

dyidwurruk (kurnai)

sexual desire

gan (kurnai)

animal

Gellung-warl (kurnai)

Rotamah Island, place name

gendook (kurnai)

stick for use as a punt with a canoe

Geremoot (kurnai)

Nicholson River, place name

gindhan (kurnai)

jump

grangalloo (kurnai)

hunting ground

gree (kurnai)

money

gri (kurnai)

bark canoe

gruk (kurnai)

blood

gullendan (kurnai)

remember

gunnai (kurnai)

man, Man, human [also pronounced  kurnai - used as the tribe name]

gunno (kurnai)

perhaps

gunyeru (kurnai)

corroboree [tribal gathering and ceremony]

gutaban (kurnai)

one

gwannung (kurnai)

shit

gwarrun (kurnai)

thunder

il (kurnai)

and

Jaitmathang (jaitmathang)

Jaitmathang tribe, Omeo and Victorian Alps

jerraeil (kurnai)

initiation

jetbolan (kurnai)

liar, pretender

jibban (kurnai)

burn, roast

jilli (kurnai)

today

kaiun (kurnai)

aprons worn around the waist by women, made from the skin of the kangaroo

kanti (kurnai)

my word

karndan (kurnai)

call, to call

karng (kurnai)

lake

karobran (kurnai)

together

karrong (kurnai)

cold, flu, consumption, TB, lung disease

ko-ki (kurnai)

exclamation of surprise, much like 'wow!' or 'cor blimey'

Koori (south east australian tribe)

our people

kraaun (kurnai)

female companion during initiation ceremony

kramban (kurnai)

laugh

Kroatungolung (kurnai)

Kroatungolung tribe, Kurnai, Lakes Entrance, Caan River and Buchan

kukun (kurnai)

maternal grandmother

kurelgatti (kurnai)

big, large

kurnai (kurnai)

man, human; title of the tribe that inhabited Gippsland [used in this text as the tribe name as distinct from 'Gunnai' which is used to describe 'Man' or 'man' herein]

laen (kurnai)

agreeable, good, beautiful [much like the colloquial term 'cool']

lak (kurnai)

food

lewin (kurnai)

news, messenger with news

lewinda-jerra-alla (kurnai)

messengers of the initiation

lo-an (kurnai)

don't look

loon (kurnai)

white man

loonikin (kurnai)

white woman

loorapa (kurnai)

run away

ma (kurnai)

of

makta (kurnai)

body

malloo (kurnai)

dust, dirt

Maneroo (kurnai)

Maneroo tribe [Monaro tribe, southern NSW]

marinathung (kurnai)

splendid oven, earth oven

marraga (kurnai)

shield

melkin (kurnai)

kill

mia (kurnai)

hut, huts

Minjambuta (minjambuta)

Minjambuta tribe - Mt Buffalo, Ovens Valley

mirpak (kurnai)

cold

mirriwan (kurnai)

spear thrower

mirrukwat (kurnai)

lightning

mlang-mri (kurnai)

lightning eyes

mraa (kurnai)

face, faces

mrart (kurnai)

ghosts of ancestors

mremunaty (kurnai)

hunger

mri (kurnai)

eye, eyes

muggan (kurnai)

father

muk (kurnai)

great, excellent

mulbitthunga (kurnai)

long ago

muldarpe (unknown - South Australian or Western Australian origin)

mythical evil spirit/creature that could take the form of many animals

mulla-mullung (kurnai)

medicine man, witch doctor

mulnokang (kurnai)

yesterday

munga (kurnai)

from

mungie (kurnai)

place

muraty (kurnai)

sick, ill

Murla (kurnai)

Lake Wellington, place name

murndhan (kurnai)

dance

Murrundyanarla (kurnai)

Freestone Creek, place name

nakun (kurnai)

maternal grandfather

Narguna (kurnai)

Nargun, a mythical creature

Narkabungdha (kurnai)

The Sea Spirit

narran (kurnai)

moon

nartowngill (kurnai)

blanket

nga (kurnai)

yes

ngalko (kurnai)

no [similar to yes - nga]

ngalquan (kurnai)

alone

ngetal (kurnai)

my

Ngooran (kurnai)

the Southern Cross, a constellation

ngulla-gullendan (kurnai)

forget

ngullagung (kurnai)

greed

Ngurrwut (kurnai)

Sub-tribe, family within the Tatungolung

Nigothoruk (kurnai)

Mount Wellington (place name) - [nigothoruk - possibly great spirits that lived in this sacred area]

notte (kurnai)

cloud, clouds

nrung (kurnai)

hole, cave, burrow

nulluk (kurnai)

skin

nungalung (kurnai)

his, hers

nungurra (kurnai)

pleasant place

nuwan (kurnai)

weep

nyerimerlang (kurnai)

chain of lakes

Nyol (kurnai)

mythical little men, good and evil, that often steal the memory of the people they are with

partoeng (kurnai)

basket, pouch

pippi (kurnai)

common shellfish found on sandy ocean beaches

rindhan (kurnai)

run

Tabberabbera (kurnai)

meeting of two rivers [place name]

tanderra (kurnai)

resting place

targoot (kurnai)

stop a bit, pause

tarli (kurnai)

small, little

Tarli Karng (kurnai)

Little Lake, place name

Tatungolung (kurnai)

Tatungolung tribe, Kurnai, Gippsland Lakes, Seaspray to Lakes Entrance

Taungurong (taungurong)

Taungurong tribe, Seymour to Mt Buffalo

thaganai (kurnai)

observe (no evidence of the equivalents - 'look' or 'see')

thara (kurnai)

name, names

thunganadhang (kurnai)

talk

thungdung (kurnai)

totem

tiddalik (kurnai)

frog

tinban (kurnai)

bad

toom (kurnai)

good

toona (kurnai)

say, declare, reply

Toornalook (kurnai)

Lake Victoria, place name meaning long, narrow water

tootnurrung (kurnai)

adolescent male during the period of the initiation ceremony

towera (kurnai)

fire

tuk (kurnai)

musk duck

Tundun (kurnai)

porpoise, dolphin; son of muk Muggan-Yambo

turndun (kurnai)

bullroarer, sacred instrument that attracted spirits and women

Turnmile (kurnai)

one who swaggers, name

tutbukan (kurnai)

girl

tyillaiu (kurnai)

by and by, over time, sometime

wadyuwadyuk (kurnai)

venereal disease, commonly syphillis

Walmunyeera (kurnai)

Lake Reeve, place name meaning shallow lake

Wandilligong (minjambuta)

little bushman, goblin, spirit

wangin (kurnai)

boomerang; Boomerang Point, place name

warngun (kurnai)

hunter

warridyallumba (kurnai)

wake

warrigal (wurundjeri)

wild blacks

warrun (kurnai)

sun; day; sky

warrunyan (kurnai)

love

Wendell (kurnai)

significant Kurnai ceremonial place, close to Lake Wellington, actual location unknown

whentwin (kurnai)

paternal grandfather

Whowie (kurnai)

mythical evil spirit/creature

willang (kurnai)

rain

willin (kurnai)

vulva

wirragun (kurnai)

swim

wirrak (kurnai)

piss

wotti (kurnai)

boy

wraeel (kurnai)

canoe paddles - also used to scoop water out of the canoe

wudhur (kurnai)

quick, fast, swift

wun (kurnai)

river

wunganloon (kurnai)

white explorer

wurruk (kurnai)

earth; story [Wurruk = Earth, wurruk = story]

Wurundjeri (wurundjeri)

Wurundjeri tribe, Yarra Valley, current site of Melbourne

yakka-toon (kurnai)

well said

yambo (kurnai)

spirit

Yambo-Kani (kurnai)

spirit double of the deceased, Man-Spirit

Yambo-Mri (author)

Spirit-Eye

yangan (kurnai)

walk

yardabannai (kurnai)

slow, tired

Yau-ung (kurnai)

Sub-tribe, family within the Bratauolung

yay (kurnai)

sad, sorrow

yeerung (kurnai)

emu wren, Stipiturus Malachurus [also the totem of the men in the Kurnai tribes]

yuggan (kurnai)

mother

yukka-dom (kurnai)

oh dear oh dear

yuk-ki (kurnai)

oh dear - exclamation

yunki (kurnai)

friend, mate

 

Preview and/or purchase Wurruk direct from printer (c/o Lulu, Inc.)



Full List of Kurnai, Ganai, Gunnai Words used when composing the First Draft of Wurruk

  baan (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): evil magic, sorcery
  Babuk (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): uncle
  baddhaluk (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): goanna
  bagwan (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): life
  bal (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): all
  ballon (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): bough, spreading branch
  balmburn (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): little lizard, droptail lizard
  ban (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): knee
  ban (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): knee
  bandan (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): sleep
  bang (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): camp
  barrat (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): again
  barritbruk (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): battle ground
  bategejan (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): cut
  baul (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): island
  Baul-Baul (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): Boole Boole Penisula, place name
  baurn (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): she-oak
  beakwan (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): alright, all right
  be-ara (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): north
  beeber-beeber (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): a constant gale, lit. blow-hard blow-hard
  bengworden (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): fall, falling
  bepercutty (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): plain
  Berrawun (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): Tambo River, place name
  Bidwelli (bidwelli): Bidwelli tribe, Eastern Border of Victoria and New South Wales
  bil (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): in
  billabong (unknown Koori): a section of a river where it may have once flowed that fills with water when the river overflows
  bimba (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): shoot out, spark [fire]
  Binejarra-Baul-Baul (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): Sub-tribe, family within the Tatungolung
  bingalang (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): hollow tree, log
  birndang (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): arm
  birraark (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): men who had communion with the spirit world
  birruon (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): turn around
  blakagyingin (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): fall down
  blanda (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): sweat
  blinte (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): bright light
  bogong (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): moth – particularly the Bogong Moth found in the Victorian Alps during summer in their hundreds of thousdands
  boldain (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): young adults are given new names according to certain personal characteristics
  bonne (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): dog or dingo
  boolagga (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): cattle, bullock
  boolk (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): magic or witchcraft; small black stones or pebbles used as charms
  boolootha (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): above, up, over
  boon (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): wrist
  boora (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): valley
  boorka (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): sharp, sharpen
  boorne (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): leg, legs
  booroo (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): gun
  boorun (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): pelican
  booth (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): amidst
  boredeen (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): old man
  boulgan (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): heart
  bow (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): okay, OK
  bowerndung (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): smoke, fog, mist
  Bowyung (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): elder sister, sister
  boyang (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): egg
  bra (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): man, men, the men, manly
  braba (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): throw
  Brabrolung (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): Brabrolung tribe, kurnai, ganai, gunnai, Lake King, Great Dividing Range from Mitchell River to the Tambo River
  braeel (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): star
  Braiakolung (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): Braiakulung tribe, kurnai, ganai, gunnai, Strezlecki Ranges, Great Dividing Range, Lake Victoria
  brajerak (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): enemy; men whom we fear
  brangula (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): of male origin
  Bratauolung (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): Bratauolung tribe, kurnai, ganai, gunnai, Wilson’s Promontory, Strezlecki Ranges and Seaspray
  bret (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): hand, hands
  brewin (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): evil spirit, disease
  brewit (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): adult male, following the intiation
  bric (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): ti tree
  bridda-bridda (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): aprons worn around the waist by men, made from the skin of the kangaroo-rat
  brogan (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): brother/adopted brother
  brundhu (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): tomorrow
  bryng (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): bone
  budgee-budgee-mul (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): come here; I want you
  bukkan (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): night; dark
  bulaman (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): two
  bulaman-bata-bulum (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): four
  bulaman-bata-gutuk (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): three [two and one]
  bulamirnda (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): wife, husband, partner
  bulga (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): mountain
  bullerwang (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): adult male companion during the initiation ceremony
  bullum (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): both
  bullum-bullum (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): plenty
  bulun (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): stomach, belly, abdomen
  bun (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): grass
  bundando (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): bite
  bungu-benerk (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): waves, whitecaps, white billow
  Bung-Yarnda (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): Lake Tyers
  bunjil (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): knowledge, wisdom, understand, think; prefix given to kurnai, ganai, gunnai men when they get older
  Bunjil-baul (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): Raymond Island, place name
  Bunurong (bunurong): Bunurong tribe, Westernport Bay
  buragwonduc (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): blindness
  burbaiang (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): big mullet
  burk (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): breast
  but (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): rabbit
  buth (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): as
  butha (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): the
  cheetwile (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): swallow
  chulurn (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): little bell-bird
  coungulla (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): wild men
  cowagil (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): reeds
  cowan (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): echidna
  cowarr (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): wind
  craook (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): entrails
  cudgeree (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): club, heavy club
  curramoi (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): orphan
  cuttarie (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): cloak [possum skin]
  cutwort (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): pigface
  daan (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): snow, ice
  daanballuk (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): snow gum [daan: snow; balluk: gum tree]
  dagong (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): box tree
  damut (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): masturbation
  dang (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): shoulder
  dardi (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): strong, firm, powerful, hard
  dawalgan (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): wound
  deeydgan (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): willy-wagtail [black and white fantail, Rhipidura leucophrys]
  dhadyan (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): clever man
  dhadyang (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): glad, happy
  dhakbadhu (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): spit
  dhandagunnai (author): cannibal, eating human
  dhandalak (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): eat
  dhandayan (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): drink
  dhowan-dhowan-jul (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): steal, to steal
  dhugan (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): tomahawk
  dhulut (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): neck
  dhun (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): penis
  dhunguggan (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): sex, copulation
  dhurndhumba (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): kiss
  diak (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): ask
  dikbun (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): bullant
  dindin (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): very bad
  dindin-munadha (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): sorry
  dirdik (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): mosquito
  dirlk (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): ball
  djeetgun (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): blue wren, superb warbler, Malarus Cyaneus [also totem of the women in the kurnai, ganai, gunnai tribes]
  djira (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): kangaroo
  djunga (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): police
  dong (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): lizard
  doogooroo (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): waterfall
  durblang (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): water rat
  durdigan (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): dead, die
  durnduruk (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): full, sated
  durt (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): testicles, scrotum
  dyettyan (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): stand
  dyidwurruk (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): sexual desire
  dyurran (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): thigh
  gallak (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): wood
  gan (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): animal [derived by the author from other animal names]
  gandi (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): behind
  gandingina (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): behind you
  gandinung (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): behind him
  gayrik (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): scrub, bush
  ge (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): by
  Gellung-warl (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): Rotamah Island, place name
  gendook (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): stick for use as a punt with a canoe
  Geremoot (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): Nicholson River, place name
  gerrung (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): leaves
  Gidyarn (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): daughter
  gillbranging (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): mate
  gindhan (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): jump, hop, leap
  glart (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): magpie
  gnoolo (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): more
  goola (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): koala
  goonure (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): swan
  gourruntchunuc (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): big waterhole
  grangalloo (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): hunting ground
  granggang-gang (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): chicken, fowl
  gree (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): money
  gri (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): bark canoe
  gruk (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): blood
  guani (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): or
  gullendan (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): remember, memory
  Gunnai (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): man, Man, human [also pronounced  kurnai, ganai, gunnai: used as the tribe name in this text]
  gunno (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): perhaps
  gunyeru (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): corroboree [tribal gathering and ceremony]
  gutaban (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): one
  guyagung (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): rapids
  gwak (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): kookaburra
  gwandoban (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): rest
  gwannamurrung (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): eaglehawk
  gwannung (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): excrement (shit!)
  gwarrun (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): thunder
  gweed (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): insect [derived by the author from similar words]
  il (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): and
  jaigong (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): fatherless
  Jaitmathang (jaitmathang): Jaitmathang tribe, Omeo and Victorian Alps
  jak (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): bird
  jane (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): foot
  jeddik (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): knife, usually stone
  jelandook (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): summer
  jellan (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): to
  jenana (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): near
  jerak (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): angry, afraid, scary, fearful, nervous
  jerraeil (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): initiation
  jetbolan (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): liar, pretender
  jettah (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): sea beach
  jibban (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): burn, burnt, roast
  jilli (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): today
  jumbuc (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): sheep
  kaat (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): mouth
  kaiun (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): aprons worn around the waist by women, made from kangaroo skin
  kakoweera (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): tree fern
  kallak (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): twig, stick
  kanti (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): my word
  karndan (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): call, to call
  karng (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): lake
  karobran (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): together
  karrong (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): cold, flu, consumption, TB, lung disease
  kar-wi (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): east
  karwin (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): grass trees with a long, tall dark stem, also called yacca or ‘Black Boys’
  katch (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): tailor, fish
  keenoot (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): bark
  kendoona (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): after
  ketchoon (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): that
  kewit (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): creek
  kiemm (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): bream, fish
  kinedaa (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): fish
  ko-ki (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): exclamation of surprise, much like ‘wow!’ or ‘cor blimey’
  Koori (south east australian tribe): our people
  kraaun (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): adolescent girl and female companion during initiation ceremony
  kramban (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): laugh
  Kroatungolung (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): Kroatungolung tribe, kurnai, ganai, gunnai, Lakes Entrance, Cann River and Buchan
  kronggwan (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): vomit
  krungark (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): hill
  Kukun (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): maternal grandmother
  kunnin (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): digging stick
  kurelgatti (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): big
  kurnai, ganai, gunnai (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): man, human; title of the tribe that inhabited Gippsland [used in this text as the tribe name as distinct from ‘Gunnai’ which is used to describe ‘Man’ or ‘man’ herein - interchangeable]
  kuwan (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): bracken fern
  laen (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): agreeable, good, beautiful [much like the modern colloquial term ‘cool’]
  lak (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): food
  lekkin (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): pour
  lewin (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): news, messenger with news
  lewinda-jerra-alla (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): messengers of the initiation
  lid (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): hair on the head; beard
  litguran (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): pregnant
  lity (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): child
  lo-an (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): don’t look
  loon (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): white man
  loonikin (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): white woman
  loorapa (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): caught
  lowagil (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): seduce or entice
  lubra (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): young woman
  Lunduk (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): sister, younger
  lung (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): family, clan; belonging to
  lurpa (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): run away
  ma (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): of
  Maian (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): aunt
  mailbran (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): often
  makta (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): body
  malianga (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): around, about
  malloo (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): dust, dirt, soil, ground
  mambalgren (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): very
  maneba (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): smear
  Maneroo (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): Maneroo tribe [Monaro tribe, southern NSW]
  mangarook (unknown): game, like Australian Rules Football
  mangina (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): into
  mangu (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): house
  marinathung (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): splendid oven, earth oven
  marraga (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): shield
  mateinga (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): at
  matingary (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): mountain ash [trees]
  mebillan (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): smell
  melkin (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): kill
  mellagan (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): homeward
  merbuck (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): winter
  metbillan (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): stinking
  mia (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): hut, shelter
  midden (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): former camping grounds of the kurnai, ganai, gunnai, often filled with empty shells
  Minjambuta (minjambuta): Minjambuta tribe - Mt Buffalo, Ovens Valley
  mirkwan (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): dive, dives
  mirpak (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): cold
  mirrriwan (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): woomera, spear thrower
  mirrukwat (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): lightning
  mlang-mri (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): lightning eyes
  moolianga (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): through, throughout
  moonanga (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): without
  mraa (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): face, faces
  mrart (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): ghosts of ancestors
  mremunaty (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): hungry, hunger
  mri (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): eye, eyes
  mucbindun (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): right arm, right
  Muggan (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): father
  muk (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): great, excellent
  mulbitthunga (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): long ago
  mulbotgilla (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): this evening
  Muldarpe (unkown - South Australian or Western Australian tribe) : mythical evil spirit/creature that could take the form of many animals
  mulla-mullung (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): medicine man, witch doctor
  mullungang (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): platypus
  mulnokang (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): yesterday
  mundarra (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): feathers
  munga (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): from
  mungie (kurnia): place
  munju (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): there
  muraty (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): sick
  muriaginnea (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): trick, lie, hoax
  Murla (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): Lake Wellington, place name
  murlu (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): pipeclay
  murndhan (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): dance
  murnnong (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): yam, yams
  murrawun (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): throwing stick
  murriwangong (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): scent
  Murrundyanarla (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): Freestone Creek, place name
  mutthungan (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): stare at
  myowra (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): emu
  naial (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): red ochre
  Nakun (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): maternal grandfather
  Nallung (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): paternal grandmother
  nanma (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): what
  nappan (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): any
  nara (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): when
  narbruc (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): ribs
  Narguna (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): Nargun, a mythical creature
  Narkabungdha (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): The Sea Spirit
  narran (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): moon
  narrot (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): wombat
  nart (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): tortoise
  nartowngill (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): blanket
  neerambo (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): against
  nen (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): forehead
  nga (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): yes
  ngaian (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): flying fox
  ngalko (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): no [similar to yes – nga]
  ngalquan (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): alone
  nganinde (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): who
  ngarukal (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): crow
  ngarwaty (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): march fly
  ngat (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): leatherjacket, fish
  ngetal (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): my
  ngiau (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): I [pronounced the same as ‘ngio’ – ‘me’ and ‘I’ are used interchangeably]
  ngio (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): me [pronounced the same as ‘ngiau’]
  ngooran (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): the Southern Cross, a constellation
  ngooro (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): ahead, forward
  ngowo (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): you
  ngulla-gullendan (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): forget
  ngullagung (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): greed
  ngunga (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): him, her [possibly the same as ‘nunnga’ – he, she]
  ngurndak (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): teeth
  ngurruk (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): back
  ngurrun (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): blowfly
  Ngurrwut (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): Sub-tribe, family within the Tatungolung
  ngurtana (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): every
  ngwana (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): your, yours
  Nigothoruk (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): Mount Wellington (place name) – [nigothoruk: great spirits that lived in this sacred area, now the name of the native trout, galaxias nigothoruk]
  ninde-thanal (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): our, ours
  notte (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): clouds
  nowuk (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): shadow
  nrung (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): hole, cave, burrow
  nulla (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): before
  nullee (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): meat
  nulluk (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): skin
  nungalung (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): his, hers [belonging to he]
  nungurra (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): pleasant place
  nunnga (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): he, she
  nurkinwallung (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): rock, big stone, boulder
  nuwan (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): weep
  nyalling (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): boggy place
  nyerimerlang (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): chain of lakes
  nyin (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): sit
  Nyol (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): mythical little men, good and evil, that often steal the memory of the people they are with
  omigorm (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): motherless
  panda (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): hit
  pandean (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): fight
  partoeng (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): basket, pouch
  pertgana (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): catch
  pippi (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): common shellfish found on sandy ocean beaches
  plakoma (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): off
  preporetha (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): some
  purkill (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): parrot
  purruk (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): head
  rindhan (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): run
  sunset (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): sunset, eveining
  Tabberabbera (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): place name, meeting of two rivers
  tagera (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): nails, claws
  taggara (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): fingers, toes
  tallumart (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): young man
  tanderra (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): resting place
  targoot (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): stop a bit, pause
  tarli (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): small
  Tarli-karng (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): Little Lake, place name
  tarlitban (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): small quantity
  Tatungolung (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): Tatungolung tribe, kurnai, ganai, gunnai, Gippsland Lakes, Seaspray to Lakes Entrance
  Taungurong (taungurong): Taungurong tribe, Seymour to Mt Buffalo
  telbut (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): junction
  tethagengan (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): chew
  tha (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): south
  thaan (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): lips
  thaganai (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): observe, watch
  thana (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): they, them, themselves
  thanal (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): their, theirs
  thanga (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): below, down, under, beneath
  thara (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): name, names
  thinana (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): beside
  thoolo (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): with
  thunganadhang (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): talk
  thungandhaa (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): waterhole
  thungdung (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): totem
  tiddalik (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): frog
  tinban (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): bad
  togar (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): nest
  toom (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): good
  toona (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): say, declare, reply
  Toornalook (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): Lake Victoria, place name meaning long, narrow water
  toorroong (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): snake
  tootnurrung (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): adolescent male during the period of the initiation
  towatgulla (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): climb
  towera (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): fire
  tuk (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): musk duck
  tundun (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): porpoise, dolphin; son of the great Muggan-Yambo
  Tundung (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): brother
  turndun (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): bullroarer, sacred instrument that attracted women and spirits
  turnmile (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): one who swaggers, name
  tutbukan (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): girl
  tyelling (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): tongue
  tyillaiu (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): by and by
  ucamirrin (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): sunrise, dawn
  uro (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): red gum tree
  waaroin (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): forest
  waddhan (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): possum
  wadyuwadyuk (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): venereal disease, commonly syphilis
  wal (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): spear
  wallung (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): stone
  Walmunyeera (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): Lake Reeve, place name meaning shallow lake
  wamba (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): many or several of
  Wandilligong (minjambuta): little bushman, goblin, spirit, place name
  wanga (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): go, went, going
  wangin (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): boomerang
  wanik (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): tracks, to track
  wanjana (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): carry, hold
  wanjani (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): take, take it
  wanuan (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): fat
  warngun (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): hunt
  warragun (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): left arm, left
  warrapanana (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): to live, live
  warridyallumba (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): arise, wake
  warrie (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): sea, ocean
  Warrigal (wurundjeri): wild men
  warrun (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): day [also used for sun and sky]
  warrun (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): sky [also used for sun and day]
  warrun (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): sun; day; sky
  warrunyan (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): love
  watthurt (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): sand
  watwaty (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): sing
  Welwunduk (welwunduk): Welwunduk tribe, Western area of the Victorian Alps
  Wendell (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): significant kurnai, ganai, gunnai ceremonial place, close to Lake Wellington, actual location unknown
  werna (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): we, us
  wert (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): it
  Whentwin (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): paternal grandfather
  Whowie (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): mythical evil spirit/creature
  willang (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): rain
  willin (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): vulva
  winnenerbree (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): kangaroo-rat
  wirragun (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): swim
  wirrak (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): piss, urine
  witbyun (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): whistle
  woogat (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): woman
  woorayl (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): lyrebird
  woothae (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): within
  worriatang (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): flesh
  wotti (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): boy
  wraeel (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): canoe paddles – also used to scoop water out of the canoe
  wreckil (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): tall
  wring (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): ear
  wudhur (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): quick, fast, swift
  wullong (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): kidney
  wulnging (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): how
  wun (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): river
  wunga (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): hear, sound, noise, listen
  wungan (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): search for, explore, seek
  wunganloon (author): white explorer
  wunman (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): where
  wurruk (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): earth; story [in this text, Wurruk: Earth, wurruk: story - also pronounced wuk wuk]
  Wurundjeri (wurundjeri): Wurundjeri tribe, Yarra Valley current site of Melbourne
  wutherama (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): hasten, to hasten
  yaan (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): water
  yail-ngleppur (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): trees [ngleppur: tree]
  yain (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): chin
  yak (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): west
  yakka-toon (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): well said
  yal (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): not
  yambo (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): spirit
  yambo-kani (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): spirit double of the deceased
  Yambo-Mri (author): Spirit-Eye
  yangan (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): walk
  yanggurra (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): stringybark tree
  yardabannai (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): slow, tired
  yarraman (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): horse
  yarrowa (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): angry, fightable
  Yau-ung (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): sub-tribe, family within the Bratauolung
  yay (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): sorrow
  yeerung (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): Emu Wren, Stipiturus Malachurus [also the totem of the men in the kurnai, ganai, gunnai tribes]
  Yuggan (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): mother
  yukka-dom (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): oh dear oh dear
  yukkana (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): of female origin
  yuk-ki (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): oh dear - exclamation
  yunki (kurnai, ganai, gunnai): friend, mate

Preview and/or purchase Wurruk direct from printer (c/o Lulu, Inc.)

 Copyright 2006 ChaosFilter.com -  info<at>chaosfilter.com  - All rights reserved.